The research section lists down all important reports and research articlesin the field of Internet shutdowns in India.

Oct. 12, 2022

The Impact of Internet Shutdowns on Human Rights Defenders in India

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April 28, 2022

Internet Shutdowns in 2021: The return of digital authoritarianism

The report is prepared by Accessnow and #Keepiton coalition. It has recorded 182 internet shutdowns over 34 countries. It analyses the causes of shutdowns, the trends around the world and impacts on human rights.

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Jan. 4, 2022

TOP10VPN Internet Shutdowns Report for the year 2021.

The report cover the economic impact of internet shutdowns across the world. It analyzes every major intentional internet shutdown in 2021 and reveals that they cost a world economy still suffering under a pandemic a further $5.5 billion.

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June 22, 2021

India experienced highest internet shutdowns in 2020 at 115; Some states 250% more likely to experience internet shutdowns than other states

A report on "Understanding India’s Troubling Rise in Internet Shutdowns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis" authored by Dr. Kris Ruijgrok, a Dutch political analyst at the University of Amsterdam, found that India experienced the highest internet shutdown count in the world at 115. However, the report found that such shutdowns were not uniformly experienced across the country, noting that likelihood of internet shutdowns in states ruled by a certain political dispensation currently having majority at the Centre is more than 250% higher than states not governed by said dispensation. The report further notes that such likelihood of internet shutdowns on a district-basis is 3% in states ruled by the said dispensation during any given month as opposed to only 0.8 percent in states not ruled by said dispensation. Even excluding the case of Jammu and Kashmir, the probability in districts of states governed by said dispensation remained as high as 1.7 percent as opposed to only 0.4 percent for districts not governed by said dispensation. To know about the political dispensation the report is referring to, click on "Read more" provided research assistance to Dr. Ruijgrok in preparing this report. 

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March 4, 2021

India had highest number of Internet shutdowns at 109 in 2020

India reported the highest number or recorded Internet shutdowns last year, at 109 out of a total of 155 globally. This is the third consecutive year India has topped the global charts on this score, a new report by digital rights and privacy organisation Access Now has found. India was followed by Yemen with at least six shutdowns, Ethiopia with four, and Jordan three. India, Yemen, and Ethiopia had been among the worst disruptors of the internet in 2019, the report said. From Belarus to Bangladesh, authorities in 29 countries shut down or interfered with the internet at least 155 times in 2020, the report, "Shattered dreams and lost opportunities: A year in the fight to #KeepItOn," found. 

Read the 2020 Access Now Report at 

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Jan. 6, 2021

Internet Shutdowns costed India $2.8 billion in 2020

India has topped the list of restricting internet access to citizens more than any other country – over 75 times in 2020, which cost the economy $2.8 billion, says an annual report by Top10VPN, a UK-based digital privacy and security research group. Read the 2020 Top10VPN report at 

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Jan. 7, 2020

The Global cost of Internet shutdowns in 2019
This report published in January 2020 analyzes every major internet shutdown around the world in 2019 and reveals this cost to the global economy. Link -

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Jan. 7, 2020

Knowledge Bank on Internet shutdowns
Prepared by SFLC.IN, it is a list of resources in form of a Knowledge bank which will help in understanding Internet Shutdowns better. Link -

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Feb. 11, 2019

Of Blackouts and Bandhs: The Strategy and Structure of Disconnected Protest in India
This paper written by Jan Rydzak looks at the underlying structures of network disruptions. Link -

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May 1, 2018

Living in Digital Darkness - A Handbook on Internet Shutdowns in India, May 2018
A report by SFLC.IN on the state of Internet shutdowns in India, analyzing its emergence as a public policy issue, governing laws, recorded instances, and impact among others. Link -

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April 28, 2018

Anatomy of an Internet Blackout
Measuring the economic impact of Internet Shutdowns in India, Indian Council for Research for International Economic Relations, this report was published in April 2018. Link -

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Nov. 23, 2017

Internet Shutdown Tracker, India

Consolidated listing of all shutdowns in India recorded by SFLC.IN from 2012 till date for multiple reasons. This compilation(pdf) provides a list of these shutdowns alongwith the reasons assigned to the same.

Link -

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